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What Is Calcium Acetate
What Is Calcium Acetate
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Related post: tageously with an equal quantity of magnesium carbonate or sodium
salicylate), until a therapeutic response or slight gastro-intestinal dis-
turbance and weakness occur. Some disturbance of digestion and soft
stools are the rule; and in susceptible patients there may be considerable
purging and faintness. This may be lessened by atropin, but if possible
should be avoided by proper dosage. A single large dose, 2 to 5 c.c.,
% to 1 5 of tincture acts more promptly, but may cause severe nausea,
diarrhea and great muscular weakness. Prolonged administration is
generally harmful and therefore inadvisable. Colchicin, which is readily
obtainable, permits more definite dosage. It may be given, 0.5 to I
m g- ;Hi20 to )-^o g r -> three times daily, for one or at most two days. This
usually causes considerable diarrhea, beginning on the second day, and
with its appearance the drug should be discontinued. The stools will
remain loose for another day.
Metabolism. Buy Calcium Acetate The urine secretion is sometimes slightly increased, sometimes greatly
diminished, probably depending on the catharsis. The statements as to uric acid and
urea (e.g., Noel Paton, 1886; Maurel and Arnaud, 1910 ; Abl, 1913) are so contradictory,
that they can have little importance. With the modern methods, Denis, 1915, found
neither increased elimination of urates in the urine, nor diminished concentration in
the blood. The bile flow is slightly increased (Kionka, 1906). For about an hour after
administration, the leucocytes in the blood are decreased; this is followed by a Calcium Acetate Buy remarkable
increase, especially of the polymorphous, which reach two to five times the normal in
twelve hours (Dixon and Maiden, ic
Symptoms. These set in only after three to six hours, even with large doses. They
begin with abdominal discomfort, followed by violent and uncontrollable vomiting and
purging and great prostration. The stools are at first normal, but become dysenteric
and bloody. They are not especially painful but exhausting; so that the patient passes
into collapse, with the nervous and muscular symptoms of cholera. Death occurs in
seven to thirty-six hours from exhaustion, consciousness being preserved to the end.
The fatal dose varies; % ounce of the Tincture has been fatal. This would corre-
spond to about 8 mg. of colchicin; but recovery has occurred from much larger doses,
presumably with imperfect absorption.
Treatment. This involves evacuation by emesis and catharsis, if necessary, and
diuresis. Tannin is a chemic antidote, but not very effective. Opium and belladonna
are given against the gastroenteritis, and the collapse is treated as usual.
Autopsy reveals intense and often hemorrhagic congestion of the intestines, especially
the lower portion.
Gastro-intestinal Irritation. The mechanism of the intense congestion and violent
peristalsis has been variously explained. They occur even on parenteral administra-
tion, but this has no special significance, since the colchicin is excreted into the intes-
tines (Speyer, 1870; Laborde and Houd6, 1887). The action is not directly on the
muscle or its innervation, for excised intestine is depressed in tone and excursions by
colchicin or oxydicolchicin (Fuehner and Rehbein, 1915). Roosbach, 1876, stated that
the motor response to the intestinal vagus or splanchnic is not affected. The persistence
of vagus response has been confirmed by Fuehner and Rehbein. Jacob j, 1890, con-
ducted experiments with intestines exposed under a saline bath. These showed increased
peristalsis of a normal type, inhibited by atropin. He concluded that the action consists
in enormously heightened response to the normal peristaltic stimuli. Dixon and
Maiden, 1908, also described immediate peristalsis, which was arrested by atropin, and
which they therefore attribute to parasympathetic stimulation. Fuehner and Rehbein,
1915, repeated these experiments, but failed to confirm the results. Increased peri-
stalsis occurred only exceptionally. It appears therefore that the peristaltic increase
observed by Jacobj and Dixon was accidental, due to causes other than the colchicum.
Fuehner and Rehbein refer the entire action to an irritative capillary vasodilation
analogous to the local actions Acetate Calcium elsewhere, and produced by contact with the drug, reach-
ing the intestine directly or by excretion. They find this hyperemia of the stomach
and intestines even with small doses.
Local Action. Strong solutions applied locally to the conjunctiva or subcutaneous
tissue, What Is Calcium Acetate produce hyperemia, irritation and anesthesia.
Central Nervous System. This is gradually paralyzed from below upward, partly
directly and partly by the collapse.
No appreciable direct effect is exerted on the circulation (therapeutically, it is some-
what slowed by the Where To Buy Calcium Acetate relief of the symptoms) ; nor on the glands, striped muscle, or motor
nerves (Rossbach; Dixon and Maiden).
Explanation of the Delayed Action. The long period before the symptoms appear
can not be materially shortened by increasing the dose (Schorff and Rossbach, 1896),
or by intravenous injection. Colchicin itself has relatively little effect on frogs; but
its toxicity for these can be increased 50 times by raising the temperature to 37C.
(Sanno, 1911). The reason for this is, according to Jacobj, 1890, that it is not the
colchicin itself which produces the symptoms, but an oxidation product oxy-di-colchicin
which is formed from it Calcium Acetate 667 in the mammalian organism even by circulating it through
excised organs but does not seem to be capable of formation in the frog's at a low
temperature. Once formed, whether in the above manner or artificially by the action
of ozone, it is toxic to frogs also.
Bio-assay. The toxicity for mice or heated frogs may be used (Fuehner, 1910).
The structure of colchicin has been established by Zeisel, 1888, and Windaus
(Fuehner, 1913). By treatment with acids, a methyl group is easily split off as methy
alcohol and replaced by OH, yielding colchicein. This and various other derivatives
have been studied pharmacologically by Fuehner, 1913. The relative toxicity for
various animals shows interesting differences.
Colchici Cormus, U.S.P., B.P.; Colchicum Corm (Root). The dried corm Generic Calcium Acetate of Col-
chicum Autumnale (yielding not less than 0.35 per cent, of colchicin, U.S.P.)- Dose,
0.25 Gm., 4 gr., U.S.P.
Ext. Colch. Corm., U.S.P. A powdered extract, i Gm. representing 4 Gm. of drug,
or about 1.35 per cent, of colchicin. Dose, 0.06 Gm., i gr., U.S.P.
Ext. Colch., B.P. The juice expressed from the corm and evaporated to a soft
extract. Calcium Magnesium Acetate Dose, 16 to 60 mg., Y to i gr., B.P.
Vin. Colch., B.P.; Wine of Colchicum. 20 per cent, of corm. Dose, 0.6 to 1.8 c.c.,
10 to 30 minims, B.P.
Colchici Semen, U.S.P.; Colchici Semina, B.P.; Colchicum Seed. The dried ripe
seed of Colchicum autumnale (yielding not less than 0.45 per cent, of colchicin), U.S.P.
Dose, 0.2 Gm., 3 gr., U.S.P.
Fldexl. Colch. Sem., U.S.P. Dose, 0.2 c.c., 3 minims, U.S.P.
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