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What Is Calcium Acetate

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What Is Calcium Acetate
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Related post: tageously with an equal quantity of magnesium carbonate or sodium salicylate), until a therapeutic response or slight gastro-intestinal dis- turbance and weakness occur. Some disturbance of digestion and soft stools are the rule; and in susceptible patients there may be considerable purging and faintness. This may be lessened by atropin, but if possible should be avoided by proper dosage. A single large dose, 2 to 5 c.c., % to 1 5 of tincture acts more promptly, but may cause severe nausea, diarrhea and great muscular weakness. Prolonged administration is generally harmful and therefore inadvisable. Colchicin, which is readily obtainable, permits more definite dosage. It may be given, 0.5 to I m g- ;Hi20 to )-^o g r -> three times daily, for one or at most two days. This usually causes considerable diarrhea, beginning on the second day, and with its appearance the drug should be discontinued. The stools will remain loose for another day. Metabolism. Buy Calcium Acetate The urine secretion is sometimes slightly increased, sometimes greatly diminished, probably depending on the catharsis. The statements as to uric acid and urea (e.g., Noel Paton, 1886; Maurel and Arnaud, 1910 ; Abl, 1913) are so contradictory, that they can have little importance. With the modern methods, Denis, 1915, found neither increased elimination of urates in the urine, nor diminished concentration in the blood. The bile flow is slightly increased (Kionka, 1906). For about an hour after administration, the leucocytes in the blood are decreased; this is followed by a Calcium Acetate Buy remarkable increase, especially of the polymorphous, which reach two to five times the normal in twelve hours (Dixon and Maiden, ic COLCHICUM POISONING Symptoms. These set in only after three to six hours, even with large doses. They begin with abdominal discomfort, followed by violent and uncontrollable vomiting and purging and great prostration. The stools are at first normal, but become dysenteric and bloody. They are not especially painful but exhausting; so that the patient passes into collapse, with the nervous and muscular symptoms of cholera. Death occurs in seven to thirty-six hours from exhaustion, consciousness being preserved to the end. The fatal dose varies; % ounce of the Tincture has been fatal. This would corre- spond to about 8 mg. of colchicin; but recovery has occurred from much larger doses, presumably with imperfect absorption. Treatment. This involves evacuation by emesis and catharsis, if necessary, and diuresis. Tannin is a chemic antidote, but not very effective. Opium and belladonna are given against the gastroenteritis, and the collapse is treated as usual. COLCHICUM 437 Autopsy reveals intense and often hemorrhagic congestion of the intestines, especially the lower portion. Gastro-intestinal Irritation. The mechanism of the intense congestion and violent peristalsis has been variously explained. They occur even on parenteral administra- tion, but this has no special significance, since the colchicin is excreted into the intes- tines (Speyer, 1870; Laborde and Houd6, 1887). The action is not directly on the muscle or its innervation, for excised intestine is depressed in tone and excursions by colchicin or oxydicolchicin (Fuehner and Rehbein, 1915). Roosbach, 1876, stated that the motor response to the intestinal vagus or splanchnic is not affected. The persistence of vagus response has been confirmed by Fuehner and Rehbein. Jacob j, 1890, con- ducted experiments with intestines exposed under a saline bath. These showed increased peristalsis of a normal type, inhibited by atropin. He concluded that the action consists in enormously heightened response to the normal peristaltic stimuli. Dixon and Maiden, 1908, also described immediate peristalsis, which was arrested by atropin, and which they therefore attribute to parasympathetic stimulation. Fuehner and Rehbein, 1915, repeated these experiments, but failed to confirm the results. Increased peri- stalsis occurred only exceptionally. It appears therefore that the peristaltic increase observed by Jacobj and Dixon was accidental, due to causes other than the colchicum. Fuehner and Rehbein refer the entire action to an irritative capillary vasodilation analogous to the local actions Acetate Calcium elsewhere, and produced by contact with the drug, reach- ing the intestine directly or by excretion. They find this hyperemia of the stomach and intestines even with small doses. Local Action. Strong solutions applied locally to the conjunctiva or subcutaneous tissue, What Is Calcium Acetate produce hyperemia, irritation and anesthesia. Central Nervous System. This is gradually paralyzed from below upward, partly directly and partly by the collapse. No appreciable direct effect is exerted on the circulation (therapeutically, it is some- what slowed by the Where To Buy Calcium Acetate relief of the symptoms) ; nor on the glands, striped muscle, or motor nerves (Rossbach; Dixon and Maiden). Explanation of the Delayed Action. The long period before the symptoms appear can not be materially shortened by increasing the dose (Schorff and Rossbach, 1896), or by intravenous injection. Colchicin itself has relatively little effect on frogs; but its toxicity for these can be increased 50 times by raising the temperature to 37C. (Sanno, 1911). The reason for this is, according to Jacobj, 1890, that it is not the colchicin itself which produces the symptoms, but an oxidation product oxy-di-colchicin which is formed from it Calcium Acetate 667 in the mammalian organism even by circulating it through excised organs but does not seem to be capable of formation in the frog's at a low temperature. Once formed, whether in the above manner or artificially by the action of ozone, it is toxic to frogs also. Bio-assay. The toxicity for mice or heated frogs may be used (Fuehner, 1910). COLCHICIN DERIVATIVES The structure of colchicin has been established by Zeisel, 1888, and Windaus (Fuehner, 1913). By treatment with acids, a methyl group is easily split off as methy alcohol and replaced by OH, yielding colchicein. This and various other derivatives have been studied pharmacologically by Fuehner, 1913. The relative toxicity for various animals shows interesting differences. PREPARATIONS COLCHICUM Colchici Cormus, U.S.P., B.P.; Colchicum Corm (Root). The dried corm Generic Calcium Acetate of Col- chicum Autumnale (yielding not less than 0.35 per cent, of colchicin, U.S.P.)- Dose, 0.25 Gm., 4 gr., U.S.P. Ext. Colch. Corm., U.S.P. A powdered extract, i Gm. representing 4 Gm. of drug, or about 1.35 per cent, of colchicin. Dose, 0.06 Gm., i gr., U.S.P. Ext. Colch., B.P. The juice expressed from the corm and evaporated to a soft extract. Calcium Magnesium Acetate Dose, 16 to 60 mg., Y to i gr., B.P. Vin. Colch., B.P.; Wine of Colchicum. 20 per cent, of corm. Dose, 0.6 to 1.8 c.c., 10 to 30 minims, B.P. Colchici Semen, U.S.P.; Colchici Semina, B.P.; Colchicum Seed. The dried ripe seed of Colchicum autumnale (yielding not less than 0.45 per cent, of colchicin), U.S.P. Dose, 0.2 Gm., 3 gr., U.S.P. Fldexl. Colch. Sem., U.S.P. Dose, 0.2 c.c., 3 minims, U.S.P.
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